Historical Capitals of China

Ye City-the capital of Eastern Wei Dynasty and Northern Qi Dynasty

Yecheng City was an ancient Chinese city located in what is now Linzhang County, Hebei and the neighbouring Anyang County, Henan. Ye was first built in the Spring and Autumn Period by Lord Huan of Qi, and by the time of the Warring States Period the city belonged to the state of Wei. Ye was a political and economic center of China during the Three Kingdoms Period and Northern Dynasties. It served as the military headquarters of the warlords Yuan Shao and Cao Cao in the last years of the Eastern Han Dynasty and later as the capital of the Eastern Wei Dynasty and Northern Qi Dynasty. The city was razed to the ground in 580, after Yang Jian, future founder of the Sui Dynasty, defeated a resistance force led by Yuchi Jiong, which used Ye as a base of operations. Extensive excavations of the city have been made in recent years, allowing Chinese historians to make detailed plans of the site.

Xian City-the capital of Sui and Tang Dynasty

Xian historically known as Cháng'ān , is the capital of the Shaanxi province in the People's Republic of China and a sub-provincial city. As one of the oldest cities in Chinese history, Xi'an is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China because it has been the capital (under various names) of some of the most important dynasties in Chinese history, including the Zhou, Qin, Han, the Sui, and Tang dynasties.Xi'an is the eastern terminus of the Silk Road and home of the Terracotta Army which was made during the Qin Dynasty. The city has more than 3,100 years of history, and was known as Chang'an literally "Perpetual Peace") before the Ming Dynasty

Nanjing City-the capital of Six Dynasties

Nanjing is the capital of China's Jiangsu Province, and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. The different spellings 'Nanjing' or 'Nanking' bear the same Chinese name - meaning 'Southern capital' - Nanking was widely used until the Pinyin language reform after which Nanjing is the international standard spelling of the city's name.Located in the lower Yangtze River drainage basin and Yangtze River Delta economic zone, Nanjing has always been one of China's most important cities. It served as the capital of China during several historical periods and is listed as one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. Nanjing was the capital of the Republic of China before the Chinese Civil War in 1949. Nanjing is also one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China's administrative structure, enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only slightly less than that of a province. Apart from having been the capital of China for six dynasties and of the Republic of China, Nanjing has also served as a national hub of education, research, transportation and tourism throughout history. It will also host the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics.

Beijing City-the capital of Ming and Qing Dynasty

Beijing is a metropolis in northern China and the capital of the People's Republic of China. Governed as a municipality under direct administration of the central government, Beijing borders Hebei Province to the north, west, south, and for a small section in the east, and Tianjin Municipality to the southeast.

Beijing is one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China.Beijing is divided into 16 urban and suburban districts and two rural counties.

Beijing is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and motorways passing through the city. It is also the destination of many international flights arriving in China. Beijing is recognized as the political, educational, and cultural center of the People's Republic of China, while Shanghai and Hong Kong predominate in economic fields.The city hosted the 2008 Olympic Games.

Chengdu City-the capital of Three Kingdoms Period

Chengdu located in southwest People's Republic of China, is the capital of Sichuan province and a sub-provincial city. Chengdu is also one of the most important economic centers, transportation and communication hubs in Western China. According to the 2007 Public Appraisal for Best Chinese Cities for Investment, Chengdu was chosen as one of the top ten cities to invest in out of a total of 280 urban centers in China. More than four thousand years ago, the prehistorical Bronze Age culture of Jinsha established itself in this region. The fertile Chengdu Plain, on which Chengdu is located, is called Tianfuzhi guo in Chinese, which literally means "the country of heaven", or more often seen translated as "the Land of Abundance". It was recently named China's 4th-most livable city by China Daily.

Chongqing City-capital of the government of Chiang Kai-shek during World War II

Chongqing is a major city in southwestern China. Administratively, it is one of the People's Republic of China's four provincial-level direct-controlled municipalities, and the only such municipality in western China. The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the sub-provincial city administration that was part of Sichuan Province. In 2007, the municipality of Chongqing had a population of 31.4423 million. It has jurisdiction over 19 districts, 17 counties, and four autonomous counties. The municipal abbreviation, Yú, was approved by the State Council on 18 April 1997. Chongqing was also a municipality of the Republic of China administration, serving as its wartime capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War. Its abbreviated name is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River that runs through Chongqing and feeds the Yangtze River.

Datong City-the capital during Northern Wei Dynasty

Datong is a prefecture-level city in the northern Shanxi Province in China, located a few hundred kilometres west by rail from Beijing with an elevation of 1090 meters. It has a population of approximately 3.11 million. The town was founded as Píngchéng in 200 BC during the Han Dynasty, after the Battle of Baideng between the Han and the Xiongnu. Located near the Great Wall Pass to Inner Mongolia. It blossomed during the following period and became a stop-off point for Camel Caravans moving from China into Mongolia and beyond. It was sacked at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty. Pingcheng became the capital of Northern Wei from 398 AD until 494 AD. The famous Yungang Grottoes were constructed during the later part of this period (460 – 494 AD). The city was renamed Datong in 1048 AD and sacked again at the end of the Ming Dynasty (1649 AD), but promptly rebuilt in 1652 AD.

Guangzhou City-National Government before the Northern Expedition

Guangzhou in English and other European languages also known as Canton (which was first romanized from the Cantonese pronunciation of Guangdong by the Portuguese) and also known as Kwangchow, is a sub-provincial city located in southern China in the middle of Guangdong Province north of the Pearl River, about 120 km (75 mi) northwest of Hong Kong. It is the third largest city in China and the capital of Guangdong Province, southern China's largest city and key transportation hub and trading port, located on the Pearl River which is navigable to the South China Sea. As of the 2000 census, the city has a population of 6 million, and an urban area population of roughly 11.85 million,[6] making it the most populous city in the province and the third most populous metropolitan area in China. The provincial government's official estimate of the metropolitan area's population at the end of 2006 was 9,754,600.[citation needed] Guangzhou's urban land area is 7,434.4 km2 (2,870.44 sq mi), the third largest in China, behind only Beijing and Shanghai.

Kaifeng City-Dynasties of Five Dynaty and Ten Kingdoms

Kaifeng is a prefecture-level city in eastern Henan province, People's Republic of China. Located along the southern bank of the Yellow River, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the west, Xinxiang to the northwest, Shangqiu to the east, Zhoukou to the southeast, Xuchang to the southwest, and the province of Shandong to the northeast.Kaifeng is one of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China. Like Beijing, there are many reconstructions. In 364 BC, the state of Wei during the Warring States Period founded a city called Daliang as its capital in this area. During this period, the first of many canals in the area was constructed; it linked a local river to the Huang He. When the State of Wei was conquered by the Qin, Kaifeng was destroyed and abandoned except for a mid-sized market town, which remained in its place.

Luoyang City-Zhou Dynasty and Han Dynaty Capital City

Luoyang is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, People's Republic of China. It borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, Jiyuan to the north, and Jiaozuo to the northeast. Situated on the central plain of China, one of the cradles of the Chinese civilization, Luoyang was one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. The greater Luoyang area has been sacred ground since the late Neolithic. This area at the intersection of the Luo and Yi rivers, called The Waste of Xia, was considered to be the geographical center of China. Because of this sacred aspect several cites, all of which are generally referred to as "Luoyang", have been built there. In 2070 BCE, the Xia Dynasty king Tai Kang moved the Xia capital to the intersection of Luo river and Yi River and named the city Zhenxun . In c 1600 BCE, King Tang of Shang defeated Jie, the final Xia Dynasty king, and built Western Bo , a new capital on the Luo River. The ruins of Western Bo are located in Luoyang Prefecture.

Wuhan City-capital of a leftist Kuomintang government

Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China, and is the most populous city in central China. It lies at the east of Jianghan Plain, and the intersection of the middle reaches of the Yangtze and Han River. Arising out of the conglomeration of three boroughs, Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang, Wuhan is known as "the nine provinces' leading thoroughfare"; it is a major transportation hub, with dozens of railways, roads and expressways passing through the city.

 

The city of Wuhan, first termed as such in 1927, has a population of approximately 9,100,000 people (2006), with about 6,100,000 residents in its urban area. In the 1920s, Wuhan was the capital of a leftist Kuomintang (KMT) government led by Wang Jingwei in opposition to Chiang Kai-shek, now Wuhan is recognized as the political, economic, financial, cultural, educational and transportation center of central China.

Hao City-capital of Western Zhou Dynaty

Hao City Hào, a form of Chinese pseudonym Hao (French Polynesia) Hao (city), 鎬, Western Zhou capital, near present-day Xi'an, Shaanxi (China) Hao Mengling, Chinese general Hao Asakura, a character in Shaman King media Hao Si-wen, a character in the Water Margin universe Hsu Hao, a character in Mortal Kombat media HAO or High Altitude Observatory HA0, a postcode area of the United Kingdom Hao of Oahu, Prince of Oahu Rauvolfia sandwicensis, a plant endemic to Hawaii